Thursday, October 16, 2008

Yulin, Shaanxi


Yulin is in the far North of the province, close to Inner Mongolia. Yulin is very close to the Gobi Desert, and thus sand is predominant in the area, though the countryside is very green due to the many small shrubs which have been planted to slow the process of desertification. The city of Yulin is based in a valley which extends north-south, which rises to a very large vantage point to the north east, where a spectacular view of the West and North West is seen.


In 2004 a protest of peasants subject to disownment was violently suppressed.

Yulin played host to the 11th CHIME conference in August 2006.


Yulin consists of one county-level administrative district, and 11 counties.

*County-level district: Yuyang District.
*Counties: , , , , , , , , , , and .


Because of its relative isolation, a considerable amount of classical architecture remains in the city proper including the original city wall, some of which has been restored. Other cultural relics include the Zhen Bei Tai watchtower, built during the Ming Dynasty, which is the largest troop fortress built on the entire Great Wall, with original and restored pieces of the original Great Wall juxtaposed on both sides. There is a large restoration in process on this area of the Great Wall. In addition, pieces of the ancient Great Wall built during the Qin Dynasty are scattered along the outskirts of town. There is also the Red Stone Gorge, a canyon lined with grottoes containing carved ancient writing and Buddhist art. The town also contains an ancient pagoda.

The Chinese dialect of is spoken in Yulin.


Although most of the local people live in a very minimal fashion, coal mining provides the predominant source of income. For some, coal mining has brought great riches.

There is a new oil-field project just to the west of Yulin which is drilling wells for natural gas, and this has brought a good deal of money into the local economy.

This new oil/gas development is the current largest onshore project cooperated by the PetroChina and International Energy Company in Mainland of China since 1999 . In 2005, this project progressed to the construction and drilling phase and delivered gas into Shaanxi-Jing No.2 pipeline in 2007. The target annual gas production is 3 billion cubic meters after this project reaches its full production capacity.


Summer in Yulin is very hot and dry. Autumn is usually still hot in the day, though cools off considerably at night, and may extend into December. Winter is typically mild, though night temperatures can reach -25 , and with a wind blowing out of the desert, this can seem considerably colder. Spring is the time of year for a great deal of sandstorms, with the wind coming out of the North West. Yulin typically has, on average, eighteen sandstorms per year.


Yan'an , is a city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province in China.

Yan'an was the endpoint of the Long March, and the center of the revolution from 1935 to 1948. Chinese communists celebrate Yan'an as the birthplace of the revolution.

Yan'an is currently a Prefecture-level city administering several counties, including , formerly , which served as the Chinese communist capital before the city of Yan'an proper took that role.


In medieval China, Yan'an was once called ''Yanzhou'', a location of strategic military importance for the Chinese empire and Tanguts of the Western Xia Dynasty. It was once successfully defended by the Song Dynasty era Chinese scientist, statesman, and general Shen Kuo . However, it was eventually taken over by the Tanguts in 1082 once Shen's defensive victories were marginalized and sacrificed by the new Chancellor Cai Que . Yan'an and the whole of Shaanxi was taken over by the Mongols in the late 1220s, only after their leader Genghis Khan had died during the siege of the Western Xia capital in 1227. The city was maintained by the successive Chinese Ming Dynasty , as well as the Manchu Qing Dynasty . After the fall of the Qing Dynasty the city fell into the hands of the newly-created Republic of China.

After the Long March Yan'an become the area for intensive training of party members and army troops. In the troops, women dressed as men would because they felt that they should not have to look like women. Raping of the villagers from the army was virtually unheard of due to the army's discipline. In 1941, Mao put special influence on a series of training programs to "correct unorthodox tendencies" and essentially mold the peasantry to the communist model. One of the first CPC program launched was the Yan'an Rectification Movement.

During the Second World War almost all buildings, except a pagoda, were destroyed by Japanese bombing, and most inhabitants took to living in yaodongs, artificial caves or s carved into hillsides which were traditional dwellings in Shaanxi. While Yan'an was the center of Chinese communist life many prominent Western journalists including Edgar Snow and Anna Louise Strong met with Mao Zedong and other important leaders for interviews. Politically, Yan'an symbolizes for many a utopian period in modern China's history where Chinese communists sought to realize their idealized vision of life, culture, and social justice, and thus stands for a former "golden age" when communist principles and ideals were actively pursued by many sincere, youthful supporters.

During the Second World War, Yan'an played host to the United States Army Observation Group, also known as the Dixie Mission. A joint military and civilian mission, it was sent to establish official ties with the Communists and explore possible plans of cooperation against the Japanese. The Americans had a presence in Yan'an from 1944 to 1947.


Xi'an , is the capital of the Shaanxi in the People's republic of China and a sub-provincial city. As one of the oldest cities in Chinese history, Xi'an is one of the because it has been the capital of some of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including the , , , the , and dynasties.

Average Temperature

Xi'an has a continental climate. The region is characterized by long, hot summers and cold, dry winters. Spring and autumn are brief in between. Xi'an receives most of its annual precipitation from August to late October in the form of rain. Summer seasons also experience frequent but short thunderstorms.


By the end of 2005, Xi'an had a population of 8.07 million.

The majority of Xi'an residents are Han Chinese, who make up 99.1% of the city's total population. There are around 81,500 ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Muslim Hui people concentrated in the famous ''Muslim quarter'', which is also home to the beautiful 1,360 year old Great Mosque of Xi'an.

During World War II, Xi'an became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially neighboring Henan Province. Because Xi'an was far inland, the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the national government tried to balance the development in different regions of China, and relocated a number of factories and universities from other cities to Xi'an. Modern Xi'an Jiaotong University was relocated from its original campus in Shanghai.


Xi'an is subdivided into 13 districts.

The urban and suburban areas of the city are divided into seven districts:

The following two districts encompass the more distant suburbs and satellite towns, constituting part of the metropolitan area:

The other four districts and the two counties located further out govern semirural and rural areas:

Transportation and infrastructure

Xi'an has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. In many commercial, residential, educations zones in the city, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower, underpasses and overpasses have been built for the safety and convenience of pedestrians. However many intersections still lack sufficiently visible traffic lights and the right-of-way is virtually non-existent except at large intersections with traffic police and signals.

There has been a significant increase in the number of privately-owned vehicles among middle and upper class households in Xi'an. Electric bikes are very popular among students and offer easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. Taxi services are numerous but many citizens of Xi'an still commute to work on one of more than 200 bus routes.


Currently there are major construction works along Chang An street for the first subway system in Xi'an, designed with 6 lines, to be completed by 2020.

Work started on the 2nd route in 2007, and is predicted to be finished in 2011. The 1st route will start in early 2009, while the rest is planned to start in 2013 and to be finished around 2020.


Taxis in Xi'an are predominantly VW Santana made in Shanghai, BYD auto made in Xi'an and Citroen made in Wuhan. Taxis work 24 hours a day, managed by the Taxi Management Bureau of Xi'an City which records complaints. Customers are charged by meter.

Most, if not all, taxis in Xi'an run on compressed natural gas .


There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an, and Xi'an Railway Station is one of the eight major national railway stations. Others include ''Xi'an West'', ''Xi'an East'', ''Xi'an South'',''Sanmincun'', ''Fangzhicheng'' railway stations. Xi'an North Railway Station is under construction.

Xi'an Railway Station covers 597 thousand square meters, has 5 passenger platforms, and 24 tracks. It provides 112 services to 80 thousand people daily. There are services from Xi'an to Zhengzhou, from Xi'an to Lanzhou, from Xi'an to Baoji,and from Xi'an to Mount Hua. CRH2 is an express service running from Xi'an to Baoji, with a total running time of under 90 minutes.


Xi'an currently has two ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road encircle the city. These ring roads similar to freeways, except that there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road.

As a famous tourist city, Xi'an has built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji, with high class roads to famous scenic spots in suburban counties and to the north slope of the Qin Mountains. Since September 2007, the newly completed Xi-Han Expressway connects Han Zhong and Xi'an through the Qinling Mountains. The ''ZhongNan Shan'' Tunnel is the longest tunnel in Asia at 15 kilometers long.


Xi'an Xianyang International Airport is the major airport serving the city and is the largest airport in northwestern of China. The airport is located to the northwest of the city, between Xi'an and Xianyang. Chang'an Airlines and China Eastern Airlines are the main airlines using the airport.

International Routes:
There are direct flights from Xi'an to many major cities in Asia, including Singapore, Bangkok, Tokyo, Osaka, Sapporo, , Kyoto, Hong Kong, Seoul, and Pusan.

Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490 million yuan to obtain a 24.5-percent stake in the Xianyang International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility.


The culture of Xi'an descends from one of the world's earliest civilizations. The culture is considered the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese; their features are satirized as the "Ten Strangenesses of Guanzhong Ren" . Xi'an is also known for the "Eight Great Sights of Chang'an" , a collection of scenic areas in the region.


Seven styles of architecture dominate urban Xi'an, the first three include the architecture of Qin and Han dynasties , the architecture of Tang Dynasty and the architecture of Ming and Qing dynasties . These three styles are all Chinese traditional, but they may be differentiated by the colors of the roof and certain details. For Qin and Han Style, the roof is black, and no decorations are used under the roof. For Tang style, red roofs may be seen but a majority retain the use of the black or dark green roof; buildings were designed to be large and monumental. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, roofs were usually yellow and highly detailed drawings and prints were placed under the roof.

The Republic of China style is perhaps best exemplified by the People's Showplace. The Sino-Soviet style , popular from the 1950s to 70s, is often used in the west of the city in factories built with the help of the U.S.S.R.. Modern architectural forms — can be found in the High-Tech Zone and the Economic-Development zone.

A new Chinese architectural form called New Tang Style can be mainly found in Qujiang , which inherits the soul of tradition and develops itself on the base of modern architecture; the Shaanxi History Museum and the Xi'an Museum are examples of this style.

Drama and literature

Qinqiang is the oldest and most extensive of the four major types of Chinese opera. Also called "random pluck" , Qinqiang is the main type of drama in Shaanxi province. As the earliest ancestor of Beijing Opera, Yu Opera, Chuan Opera and Hebei Opera, Qinqiang has developed its own system of unique vocal music, spoken parts, facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting. It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang in Qin Dynasty, and blossomed until Qing Dynasty, with direct influences on Jingju .

Art, music, film and others

Chang'an School is a very important modern Chinese school of traditional arts. The main artists are Zhao Wangyun , Shilu , He Haixia , Liu Wenxi .

Much like Beijing 798 and Shanghai 1933, Xi'an has an art district called Textile town . The district is not an actual town but derives its name from the many textile factories built there since the 1950s. Today it is no longer a centre for the textile industry but a new art factory with 4 workshops in total. Since March 2007, more than 40 artists have taken a part in these workshops.

Xi'an is known for its rock music, and is one of the vigorous underground musical centres in China - the other three being Beijing, Kunming and Chengdu. It is home to contemporary Chinese Stars such as Xuwei , Zhangchu , Zhengjun .

Zhang Yimou and Gu Changwei are directors from Xi'an. Xi'an is also the only city in China to win the Golden Bear twice. The first film is ''Red Sorghum'' and the second one is ''Tuya's Marriage''. They are produced by Xi'an Filmmaking Factory and Xi'an Filmmaking company respectively.

Chinese economists from Northwestern University in Xi'an include Zhang Weiying , Zhang Shuguang , Weijie , Liu Shijin , Songze , Fenglun , Feng Zongsu , Zou Dongtao , Li Yiping , Zhuo Zhonghai . Zhang Chaoyang , the CEO of SOHU company, is the leader in the field of Chinese Internet.

Economy and business

Industrial zones

Major industrial zones in Xi'an include:
*Xi'an Economic & Technological Development Zone
*Xi'an High-tech Industries Development Zone

Software, outsourcing industry and BPO

The growing economy of Xi'an supports the development of a software industry, and the city is a pioneer in software industry in China.

In 2005, the production value of software industry reached RMB 8.2 billion Yuan, with export revenue up to $US 42 million.

In recent years, service outsourcing industry in Xi'an has maintained robust growth. The outstanding contractor enterprises, rich human resources and preferential policies have paved a solid foundation for Xi'an to becoming a capital for service outsourcing.

Xi'an, as a second-tier city in China after the likes of Beijing and Shanghai, has a track record in the Business Process Outsourcing field. The local government is using tax and other incentives to encourage companies and professionals to relocate there.

A article describes Xi'an: "But Xi'an is selling on its own merits - with a large pool of cheap human resources from the 100 universities in the area, it hoovers up around 3,000 computer graduates every year, each earning approximately $120 a month - half the wages for the equivalent job in Beijing."

Game industry

The largest internet bar in the world with more than 3000 computers is located in Xi'an. As one of the largest educational centres in China, with a huge number of undergraduate students, online games are very popular in the area. Xi'an has already hosted worldwide game competitions such as ACON5, CEG2006, and WCG2006.


BYD AUTO is a subsidiary of BYD Company Ltd., which is a listed company in Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Xi'an BYD auto company is a branch of BYD COMPANY. BYD Company Ltd. made its debut from less than 30 people in 1995 and became the second largest rechargeable battery producer in the world in 2003.

Aerospace industry

In 2008, after the launch of the initial aerospace center in Shanghai, China is constructing another civil aerospace center in the Shaanxi province. The State Development and Reform Commission approved the planning of Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base on December 26, 2007. The National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base of Xi'an, set to cover 23 square km, will focus on developing satellites, new materials, energies, IT and other technologies for civil applications.

In November 2006, Xi'an and the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation jointly set up Xi'an Aerospace Science and Technology Industrial Base. From its establishment, the base has focused on the development of the civil space industry, including equipment manufacturing, software and service outsourcing, new materials and solar photovoltaics.

Apart from the core area, the base will cover Xi'an and the Guanzhong area and the expansion zone will reach Northwest China and Southwest China. It is expected that by 2012 the total industry output can reach 2.8 billion us dollars with about 10 to 20 brand products with intellectual property rights and 5-8 products with global competitiveness.

International Events

World F1 Motorboat Championship

World Horticultural Expo 2011

Xi’an was granted the right to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition by the Association of International Producers of Horticulture at its 59th congress, held at Brighton, United Kingdom on September 4, 2007 The 2011 World Horti-Expo will be held from April 11 to October 11, 2011 as an exhibition of A2+B1 level, which permits local government to apply.The Expo is expected to bring some 10 million visitors to Xi’an. The venue will be located in a new district of the city, Chanba district.


High season

Long holidays are usual during Spring Festival, , and . The number of travellers is often greater during Summer , although the most pleasant season for visiting Xi'an is Autumn.


Because of the city’s many historical monuments and a plethora of ancient ruins and tombs in the vicinity, with some of them yielding hundreds of sculpted clay soldiers, and remains of sacrificial temples from the Han era. The city has numerous Tang Dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum and its stele forest, which is housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from various dynasties.

Some of the most well-known sites in Xi'an are:

*The city is surrounded by a well-preserved City wall of Xi'an which was re-constructed in the 14th century during the early Ming Dynasty and was based on the inner imperial palace of Tang Dynasty.
*The Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army are located 40 km to the east of the city center, in the city's suburbs.
*The and , both are located at the city's central axis.
*The city's Muslim quarter, which is home to the Great Mosque of Xi'an.
*The Big Wild Goose Pagoda and Small Wild Goose Pagoda are both spectacular towers and both are well over 1,000 years old and have survived great earthquakes. The former is next to a large square with the largest fountain in Asia which projects water high into the air, rising and falling in time to music during one of the daily performances
*The Stele Forest is famous for its numerous historic inscriptions and stoneworks
*The Famen Temple and its towering pagoda located on the city's outskirt
*Xi Ming Temple
*Wolong Temple at Kaitong lane
*Xingjiao Temple at Shaolin Yuan
*Jianfu Temple
*Blue Dragon Temple
*Wangji Temple
*The Banpo Neolithic village is located on the outskirt of the city proper
*The Qianling Mausoleum, one of the many Tang Dynasty era tombs located in Xi'an
*The Shaanxi History Museum has a large collection of artifacts both modern and ancient.
*Mount Hua is one of the most visited and steepest mountains in the country
*Mount Zhongnan
*Mount Taibai

Major museums

*Terracotta Army Museum
*Shaanxi History Museum
*Hanyang Tomb Museum, the 1st modern underground museum in China, opened in 2006
*Forest of Steles
*Xi'an Museum: October 20th 2006, international council of monuments sites international protection center was formally established here

National parks

*Mount Cuihua, National Geological Park, Xi'an
*Zhuque National Forest Park, Xi'an
*Mount Zhongnan National Forest Park, Xi'an
*Mount Taibai National Forest Park , Mount Taibai lies both in Xi'an and Baoji
*Wang Shunshan National Forest Park, Xi'an

Other parks

*the Qinling Mountains National Botanical Garden

Hotels and lodging

International chains
*Sheraton, No. 262 Feng Hao East Rd, Xian, 710077
*ANA HOTEL, 12 HUAN CHENG south Road, Xi'an, 710068
*Holiday Inn, the east street, Xi'an
*Shangri-la, Keji Road, Xi'an
*Shangri-la, Ginwa Road, Xi'an
*Sofitel, Renmin Square, Xi'an
*Grand Mercure, Renmin Square, Xi'an
*Mercure, Renmin Square, Xi'an
*Hotel Ibis, Heping Road, Xi'an
*HYATT, 158, Dongda Jie, Xi'an
*Kempinski, River Ba, Xi'an
*Howard Johnson, Ginwa Plaza, Xi'an
*Days Hotel, Keji Road, Xi'an
*Citadines, Zhupa Shi, Xi'an
*Super 8, Zhupa Shi, Xi'an
*International Youth Hostel:official website, China (English Version
*JW Marriott, outside the south gate, opening August, 2008
*Westin, South Yanta Road, Xi'an, Opening January 1, 2010


Cuju is a very old football game:

It was improved during the Tang Dynasty . First of all, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Also, two different types of goalposts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field. Chang'an was filled with cuju football fields, in the backyards of large mansions, and some were even established in the grounds of the palaces...The level of female cuju teams also improved. Records indicate that once a 17-year-old girl beat a team of army soldiers. Cuju football became popular amongst the scholars and intellectuals, and if a courtier lacked skill in the game, he could pardon himself by acting as a scorekeeper.

Professional sports teams in Xi'an include:
Chinese Football Association Super League
*Chanba Zhongxin
Chinese Pingpong Association Super Leaque
*Galaxy (银河)
Chinese Basketball Association
*Shaanxi Dongsheng
Xi'an is also the Chinese Boxing training base for national team.


Television and radio

China Central Television's channel 1 through 12 is broadcast nation wide.
Shaanxi Television provincial station, broadcasts on eight channels as well as a satellite channel for other provinces.
Xi'an Television municipal station, has six channels for specialized programming.
Shaanxi Radio broadcasts music, news.
Xi'an Music Radio: FM 93.1, broadcasts music, news and talkshows.

Printed media

Chinese Business View is a popular daily newspaper.
Xi'an Evening News , with a history of 50 years , is one of the oldest newspapers.
Sanqin Daily covers the news of Shaanxi Province.
Many trendy magazines can be bought and picked up for free at street-side newspaper and magazine booths as well as restaurants, cafes, and hotels.

Sister cities

Xi'an's are:
* , Japan.
* Kyoto, Japan.
* Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Scotland.
* , France.
* , United States.
* Esfahan, Iran.
* Dortmund, Germany.
* Lahore, Pakistan.
* Funabashi, Japan.
* Gyeongju, South Korea.
* Ia?i, Romania.
* Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.
* Istanbul, Turkey.
* Kathmandu, Nepal.
* Brasília, Brazil.
* , Canada.
* , Argentina.
* Pompei, Italy.
Athens, Greece
* Birmingham, United Kingdom.
* Cusco, Peru.


* Gaoxin International, Keji Road, September 2007
* Yulang International, Jiefang Road, 2006

Colleges and universities

Xi'an is known as one of the academic centers in China. The number of institutions is the third highest in China, beneath Beijing and Shanghai. The private institutions are famous in the country.


*Xi'an Jiaotong University
*Xidian University
*Northwestern Polytechnical University
*Chang'an University
*Shaanxi Normal University
*Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology
*Xi'an University of Technology
*Xi'an Shiyou University
*Xi'an International Studies University
*Northwest University of Political Science and Law
*Xi'an University of Science and Technology
*Xi'an Institute of Post & Telecommunications
*Xi'an Institute of Finance and Economics
*Xi'an Polytechnic University
*Xi'an Conservatory of Music
*Xi'an Physical Education Institute
*Xi'an Technological University
*Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts
*Shaanxi Institute of Education
*Xi'an Institute of Arts and Science


*The Fourth Military Medical University
*Air force Engineering University (空军工程大学,1999年由空军电讯工程学院、空军工程学院、空军导弹学院合编组成)
*The Second Artillery Engineering University of People's Liberation Army
* XI’AN Telecommunication College


*Xi'an Eurasia University
*Shaanxi Institute of International Commerce
*Xi'an Fanyi University
*Xi'an Peihua University
*Xi'an Siyuan University
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

''see also: List of universities in the People's Republic of China''.


Weinan is a prefecture-level city in the People's Republic of China province Shaanxi.

Tongchuan, Shaanxi

Tóngchuān is a prefecture-level city located in central Shaanxi Province, on the southern fringe of the Northern Shaanxi Plateau and the northern boundary of Guanzhong Plain.


Tongchuan’s main industries are coal, building materials, machinery, textile and chemical and aluminium industry. Pottery and porcelain, with Yaozhou Kiln products are particularly well known. Tongchuan also produces medicines and food products.

Farm products include apples, hot peppers, Chinese prickly ash, garlic, flue-cured tobacco, walnuts and precious Chinese medicine herbs. Apple wine, apple vinegar, apple soft drink which are made of apples and processing products of hot pepper, walnut and etc are well-known in China and are exported to Southeast Asia.


There are the ruins of the Yaozhou Kiln, the remains of Yuhua Palace, and many rare historical relics. The Forest of Stone Sculptures on Yaowang Mountain is a major historical relic under state protection.


Lintong is a city in the of China. The Terracotta Army and the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor was discovered in March 1974 near this city.

The National Time Service Center, the Chinese Academy of Sciences , formerly known as Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory , was established in 1966 in Lintong responsible for the in mainland China. It was renamed to its present name in 2001.

The name of the city comes from two rivers. Lin river is on the east side and Tong river is on the west side of the city.


Huayin is a county-level city in Weinan, Shaanxi, China. Prior to 1990, Huayin had been regarded as a county. Huayin literally means ''to the north of Mount Hua'', because it is situated to the north of that mountain.