Xi'an has a continental climate. The region is characterized by long, hot summers and cold, dry winters. Spring and autumn are brief in between. Xi'an receives most of its annual precipitation from August to late October in the form of rain. Summer seasons also experience frequent but short thunderstorms.
By the end of 2005, Xi'an had a population of 8.07 million.
The majority of Xi'an residents are Han Chinese, who make up 99.1% of the city's total population. There are around 81,500 ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Muslim Hui people concentrated in the famous ''Muslim quarter'', which is also home to the beautiful 1,360 year old Great Mosque of Xi'an.
During World War II, Xi'an became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially neighboring Henan Province. Because Xi'an was far inland, the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the national government tried to balance the development in different regions of China, and relocated a number of factories and universities from other cities to Xi'an. Modern Xi'an Jiaotong University was relocated from its original campus in Shanghai.
Xi'an is subdivided into 13 districts.
The urban and suburban areas of the city are divided into seven districts:
The following two districts encompass the more distant suburbs and satellite towns, constituting part of the metropolitan area:
The other four districts and the two counties located further out govern semirural and rural areas:
Transportation and infrastructure
Xi'an has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. In many commercial, residential, educations zones in the city, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower, underpasses and overpasses have been built for the safety and convenience of pedestrians. However many intersections still lack sufficiently visible traffic lights and the right-of-way is virtually non-existent except at large intersections with traffic police and signals.
There has been a significant increase in the number of privately-owned vehicles among middle and upper class households in Xi'an. Electric bikes are very popular among students and offer easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. Taxi services are numerous but many citizens of Xi'an still commute to work on one of more than 200 bus routes.
Currently there are major construction works along Chang An street for the first subway system in Xi'an, designed with 6 lines, to be completed by 2020.
Work started on the 2nd route in 2007, and is predicted to be finished in 2011. The 1st route will start in early 2009, while the rest is planned to start in 2013 and to be finished around 2020.
Taxis in Xi'an are predominantly VW Santana made in Shanghai, BYD auto made in Xi'an and Citroen made in Wuhan. Taxis work 24 hours a day, managed by the Taxi Management Bureau of Xi'an City which records complaints. Customers are charged by meter.
Most, if not all, taxis in Xi'an run on compressed natural gas .
There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an, and Xi'an Railway Station is one of the eight major national railway stations. Others include ''Xi'an West'', ''Xi'an East'', ''Xi'an South'',''Sanmincun'', ''Fangzhicheng'' railway stations. Xi'an North Railway Station is under construction.
Xi'an Railway Station covers 597 thousand square meters, has 5 passenger platforms, and 24 tracks. It provides 112 services to 80 thousand people daily. There are services from Xi'an to Zhengzhou, from Xi'an to Lanzhou, from Xi'an to Baoji,and from Xi'an to Mount Hua. CRH2 is an express service running from Xi'an to Baoji, with a total running time of under 90 minutes.
Xi'an currently has two ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road encircle the city. These ring roads similar to freeways, except that there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road.
As a famous tourist city, Xi'an has built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji, with high class roads to famous scenic spots in suburban counties and to the north slope of the Qin Mountains. Since September 2007, the newly completed Xi-Han Expressway connects Han Zhong and Xi'an through the Qinling Mountains. The ''ZhongNan Shan'' Tunnel is the longest tunnel in Asia at 15 kilometers long.
Xi'an Xianyang International Airport is the major airport serving the city and is the largest airport in northwestern of China. The airport is located to the northwest of the city, between Xi'an and Xianyang. Chang'an Airlines and China Eastern Airlines are the main airlines using the airport.
There are direct flights from Xi'an to many major cities in Asia, including Singapore, Bangkok, Tokyo, Osaka, Sapporo, , Kyoto, Hong Kong, Seoul, and Pusan.
Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490 million yuan to obtain a 24.5-percent stake in the Xianyang International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility.
The culture of Xi'an descends from one of the world's earliest civilizations. The culture is considered the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese; their features are satirized as the "Ten Strangenesses of Guanzhong Ren" . Xi'an is also known for the "Eight Great Sights of Chang'an" , a collection of scenic areas in the region.
Seven styles of architecture dominate urban Xi'an, the first three include the architecture of Qin and Han dynasties , the architecture of Tang Dynasty and the architecture of Ming and Qing dynasties . These three styles are all Chinese traditional, but they may be differentiated by the colors of the roof and certain details. For Qin and Han Style, the roof is black, and no decorations are used under the roof. For Tang style, red roofs may be seen but a majority retain the use of the black or dark green roof; buildings were designed to be large and monumental. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, roofs were usually yellow and highly detailed drawings and prints were placed under the roof.
The Republic of China style is perhaps best exemplified by the People's Showplace. The Sino-Soviet style , popular from the 1950s to 70s, is often used in the west of the city in factories built with the help of the U.S.S.R.. Modern architectural forms — can be found in the High-Tech Zone and the Economic-Development zone.
A new Chinese architectural form called New Tang Style can be mainly found in Qujiang , which inherits the soul of tradition and develops itself on the base of modern architecture; the Shaanxi History Museum and the Xi'an Museum are examples of this style.
Drama and literature
Qinqiang is the oldest and most extensive of the four major types of Chinese opera. Also called "random pluck" , Qinqiang is the main type of drama in Shaanxi province. As the earliest ancestor of Beijing Opera, Yu Opera, Chuan Opera and Hebei Opera, Qinqiang has developed its own system of unique vocal music, spoken parts, facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting. It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang in Qin Dynasty, and blossomed until Qing Dynasty, with direct influences on Jingju .
Art, music, film and others
Chang'an School is a very important modern Chinese school of traditional arts. The main artists are Zhao Wangyun , Shilu , He Haixia , Liu Wenxi .
Much like Beijing 798 and Shanghai 1933, Xi'an has an art district called Textile town . The district is not an actual town but derives its name from the many textile factories built there since the 1950s. Today it is no longer a centre for the textile industry but a new art factory with 4 workshops in total. Since March 2007, more than 40 artists have taken a part in these workshops.
Xi'an is known for its rock music, and is one of the vigorous underground musical centres in China - the other three being Beijing, Kunming and Chengdu. It is home to contemporary Chinese Stars such as Xuwei , Zhangchu , Zhengjun .
Zhang Yimou and Gu Changwei are directors from Xi'an. Xi'an is also the only city in China to win the Golden Bear twice. The first film is ''Red Sorghum'' and the second one is ''Tuya's Marriage''. They are produced by Xi'an Filmmaking Factory and Xi'an Filmmaking company respectively.
Chinese economists from Northwestern University in Xi'an include Zhang Weiying , Zhang Shuguang , Weijie , Liu Shijin , Songze , Fenglun , Feng Zongsu , Zou Dongtao , Li Yiping , Zhuo Zhonghai . Zhang Chaoyang , the CEO of SOHU company, is the leader in the field of Chinese Internet.
Economy and business
Major industrial zones in Xi'an include:
*Xi'an Economic & Technological Development Zone
*Xi'an High-tech Industries Development Zone
Software, outsourcing industry and BPO
The growing economy of Xi'an supports the development of a software industry, and the city is a pioneer in software industry in China.
In 2005, the production value of software industry reached RMB 8.2 billion Yuan, with export revenue up to $US 42 million.
In recent years, service outsourcing industry in Xi'an has maintained robust growth. The outstanding contractor enterprises, rich human resources and preferential policies have paved a solid foundation for Xi'an to becoming a capital for service outsourcing.
Xi'an, as a second-tier city in China after the likes of Beijing and Shanghai, has a track record in the Business Process Outsourcing field. The local government is using tax and other incentives to encourage companies and professionals to relocate there.
A Silicon.com article describes Xi'an: "But Xi'an is selling on its own merits - with a large pool of cheap human resources from the 100 universities in the area, it hoovers up around 3,000 computer graduates every year, each earning approximately $120 a month - half the wages for the equivalent job in Beijing."
The largest internet bar in the world with more than 3000 computers is located in Xi'an. As one of the largest educational centres in China, with a huge number of undergraduate students, online games are very popular in the area. Xi'an has already hosted worldwide game competitions such as ACON5, CEG2006, and WCG2006.
BYD AUTO is a subsidiary of BYD Company Ltd., which is a listed company in Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Xi'an BYD auto company is a branch of BYD COMPANY. BYD Company Ltd. made its debut from less than 30 people in 1995 and became the second largest rechargeable battery producer in the world in 2003.
In 2008, after the launch of the initial aerospace center in Shanghai, China is constructing another civil aerospace center in the Shaanxi province. The State Development and Reform Commission approved the planning of Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base on December 26, 2007. The National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base of Xi'an, set to cover 23 square km, will focus on developing satellites, new materials, energies, IT and other technologies for civil applications.
In November 2006, Xi'an and the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation jointly set up Xi'an Aerospace Science and Technology Industrial Base. From its establishment, the base has focused on the development of the civil space industry, including equipment manufacturing, software and service outsourcing, new materials and solar photovoltaics.
Apart from the core area, the base will cover Xi'an and the Guanzhong area and the expansion zone will reach Northwest China and Southwest China. It is expected that by 2012 the total industry output can reach 2.8 billion us dollars with about 10 to 20 brand products with intellectual property rights and 5-8 products with global competitiveness.
World F1 Motorboat Championship
World Horticultural Expo 2011
Xi’an was granted the right to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition by the Association of International Producers of Horticulture at its 59th congress, held at Brighton, United Kingdom on September 4, 2007 The 2011 World Horti-Expo will be held from April 11 to October 11, 2011 as an exhibition of A2+B1 level, which permits local government to apply.The Expo is expected to bring some 10 million visitors to Xi’an. The venue will be located in a new district of the city, Chanba district.
Long holidays are usual during Spring Festival, , and . The number of travellers is often greater during Summer , although the most pleasant season for visiting Xi'an is Autumn.
Because of the city’s many historical monuments and a plethora of ancient ruins and tombs in the vicinity, with some of them yielding hundreds of sculpted clay soldiers, and remains of sacrificial temples from the Han era. The city has numerous Tang Dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum and its stele forest, which is housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from various dynasties.
Some of the most well-known sites in Xi'an are:
*The city is surrounded by a well-preserved City wall of Xi'an which was re-constructed in the 14th century during the early Ming Dynasty and was based on the inner imperial palace of Tang Dynasty.
*The Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army are located 40 km to the east of the city center, in the city's suburbs.
*The and , both are located at the city's central axis.
*The city's Muslim quarter, which is home to the Great Mosque of Xi'an.
*The Big Wild Goose Pagoda and Small Wild Goose Pagoda are both spectacular towers and both are well over 1,000 years old and have survived great earthquakes. The former is next to a large square with the largest fountain in Asia which projects water high into the air, rising and falling in time to music during one of the daily performances
*The Stele Forest is famous for its numerous historic inscriptions and stoneworks
*The Famen Temple and its towering pagoda located on the city's outskirt
*Xi Ming Temple
*Wolong Temple at Kaitong lane
*Xingjiao Temple at Shaolin Yuan
*Blue Dragon Temple
*The Banpo Neolithic village is located on the outskirt of the city proper
*The Qianling Mausoleum, one of the many Tang Dynasty era tombs located in Xi'an
*The Shaanxi History Museum has a large collection of artifacts both modern and ancient.
*Mount Hua is one of the most visited and steepest mountains in the country
*Terracotta Army Museum
*Shaanxi History Museum
*Hanyang Tomb Museum, the 1st modern underground museum in China, opened in 2006
*Forest of Steles
*Xi'an Museum: October 20th 2006, international council of monuments sites international protection center was formally established here
*Mount Cuihua, National Geological Park, Xi'an
*Zhuque National Forest Park, Xi'an
*Mount Zhongnan National Forest Park, Xi'an
*Mount Taibai National Forest Park , Mount Taibai lies both in Xi'an and Baoji
*Wang Shunshan National Forest Park, Xi'an
*the Qinling Mountains National Botanical Garden
Hotels and lodging
*Sheraton, No. 262 Feng Hao East Rd, Xian, 710077
*ANA HOTEL, 12 HUAN CHENG south Road, Xi'an, 710068
*Holiday Inn, the east street, Xi'an
*Shangri-la, Keji Road, Xi'an
*Shangri-la, Ginwa Road, Xi'an
*Sofitel, Renmin Square, Xi'an
*Grand Mercure, Renmin Square, Xi'an
*Mercure, Renmin Square, Xi'an
*Hotel Ibis, Heping Road, Xi'an
*HYATT, 158, Dongda Jie, Xi'an
*Kempinski, River Ba, Xi'an
*Howard Johnson, Ginwa Plaza, Xi'an
*Days Hotel, Keji Road, Xi'an
*Citadines, Zhupa Shi, Xi'an
*Super 8, Zhupa Shi, Xi'an
*International Youth Hostel:official website, China (English Versionhttp://www.yhachina.com/index.php?hostID=2
*JW Marriott, outside the south gate, opening August, 2008
*Westin, South Yanta Road, Xi'an, Opening January 1, 2010
Cuju is a very old football game:
It was improved during the Tang Dynasty . First of all, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Also, two different types of goalposts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field. Chang'an was filled with cuju football fields, in the backyards of large mansions, and some were even established in the grounds of the palaces...The level of female cuju teams also improved. Records indicate that once a 17-year-old girl beat a team of army soldiers. Cuju football became popular amongst the scholars and intellectuals, and if a courtier lacked skill in the game, he could pardon himself by acting as a scorekeeper.
Professional sports teams in Xi'an include:
Chinese Football Association Super League
Chinese Pingpong Association Super Leaque
Chinese Basketball Association
Xi'an is also the Chinese Boxing training base for national team.
Television and radio
China Central Television's channel 1 through 12 is broadcast nation wide.
Shaanxi Television provincial station, broadcasts on eight channels as well as a satellite channel for other provinces.
Xi'an Television municipal station, has six channels for specialized programming.
Shaanxi Radio broadcasts music, news.
Xi'an Music Radio: FM 93.1, broadcasts music, news and talkshows.
Chinese Business View is a popular daily newspaper.
Xi'an Evening News , with a history of 50 years , is one of the oldest newspapers.
Sanqin Daily covers the news of Shaanxi Province.
Many trendy magazines can be bought and picked up for free at street-side newspaper and magazine booths as well as restaurants, cafes, and hotels.
* , Japan.
* Kyoto, Japan.
* Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Scotland.
* , France.
* , United States.
* Esfahan, Iran.
* Dortmund, Germany.
* Lahore, Pakistan.
* Funabashi, Japan.
* Gyeongju, South Korea.
* Ia?i, Romania.
* Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.
* Istanbul, Turkey.
* Kathmandu, Nepal.
* Brasília, Brazil.
* , Canada.
* , Argentina.
* Pompei, Italy.
* Birmingham, United Kingdom.
* Cusco, Peru.
* Gaoxin International, Keji Road, September 2007
* Yulang International, Jiefang Road, 2006
Colleges and universities
Xi'an is known as one of the academic centers in China. The number of institutions is the third highest in China, beneath Beijing and Shanghai. The private institutions are famous in the country.
*Xi'an Jiaotong University
*Northwestern Polytechnical University
*Shaanxi Normal University
*Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology
*Xi'an University of Technology
*Xi'an Shiyou University
*Xi'an International Studies University
*Northwest University of Political Science and Law
*Xi'an University of Science and Technology
*Xi'an Institute of Post & Telecommunications
*Xi'an Institute of Finance and Economics
*Xi'an Polytechnic University
*Xi'an Conservatory of Music
*Xi'an Physical Education Institute
*Xi'an Technological University
*Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts
*Shaanxi Institute of Education
*Xi'an Institute of Arts and Science
*The Fourth Military Medical University
*Air force Engineering University （空军工程大学,1999年由空军电讯工程学院、空军工程学院、空军导弹学院合编组成）
*The Second Artillery Engineering University of People's Liberation Army
* XI’AN Telecommunication College
*Xi'an Eurasia University
*Shaanxi Institute of International Commerce
*Xi'an Fanyi University
*Xi'an Peihua University
*Xi'an Siyuan University
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
''see also: List of universities in the People's Republic of China''.